The WADA that is the World Anti-Doping Agency is put work for sporting world and check on the athletes for the use of steroids and drugs. They have an exhaustive list consisting of schedules 1 and 2 stating 70 banned performance enhancers and masking agents and 56 stimulants. Now to know each and every element is difficult so the athlete and his personal team have looked into this and check out every time a new substance has been added and which the athlete is no ingesting in dietary program.
There are regular and random checks including urine tests carried out on the players. So players have to be extra careful into what they are taking on day today basis.
How testing is done
The urine test is done in two ways, which are known as screening and confirmatory tests respectively.
The screening test is to find out the patent drug or metabolite consumed but the individual which can also include narcotics.
The confirmatory tests reveal a specific drug that has been consumed that can be pinpointed through this test which uses chromatography or mass spectrometry to assess the urine sample
For detection only one sample is not enough and urine samples are collected over a number of days to even a few months with a gap period and it depends on the kind of substance involved, each substances has its individual detection period. There a huge list as to which drug can be detected in the time frame.
The hair follicles testing give better results and cost effective within a time frame for detection of drug use. The requirement of hair is just one inch to half an inchto test and the drug is to be used a minimum of three times for detection through this process.
Finger nail testing is also easy and useful to do drug testing. Nail clippings of two to four weeks after the ingestion of the drugs and also gives the longer period of drug exposure the person tested had unlike the urine test. Toe nails give one year of drug exposure of the person.
Tests can also be conducted form other fluids of the body such as sweat, saliva, semen, blood etc.
Drugs such as cocaine and heroin are easily detectable after few hours of ingestion but their metabolites are present after many days in their urine sample.
Where the rules can be relaxed
Prescription drugs may sometimes interfere in the procedure of detection so there have been different ways to detect only the banned substances because the drugs have a peak period and then they wane off or get out of the system so it is this period when in the body, is the chance for it to be detected. The similar substances have to segregate and the ion ratios of the banned substances have to be compared. Here both the parent drug and metabolite (what our body converts it into) should both be detected. If only the parent drug and the metabolite is not found then there is definitely something fishy.